Gas cargo-handling-systems

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Every year, people have died from accidents with cryogenic liquids. The enormous volume expansion of 600 to one for LNG, and 350 to one for LPG, takes everyone by surprise when there is a leakage or accidental spill. The vapours are non-toxic and odourless, and can easily reduce the oxygen level below that needed for respiration. There is no physiological warning of oxygen deficiency, and asphyxia will kill very quickly.

If handling a cryogenic liquid in a confined space, beware of the danger of asphyxia: carry a reliable oxygen meter to provide continuous monitoring of the air you are breathing.

This chapter includes a number of advisory points on safety by the author, from some 60 years of storing, handling and carrying out research on all kinds of cryogenic liquids, including LNGs, LPGs and Freon mixtures.