Large dependency of charge distribution in a tropical cyclone inner core upon aerosol number concentration


Abstract The impacts of aerosols on the charge distribution of hydrometeors and lightning flash density in a tropical cyclone (TC) were investigated using a meteorological model coupled with an explicit lightning model. The meteorological model successfully simulated the tripole structure of charge density distribution in a TC, as reported by previous studies. The impacts of aerosols were investigated through a sensitivity experiment with changing the aerosol number concentration. The tripole structure became unclear with increasing aerosol number concentrations. The positive charge distribution located in the lower layer was not seen, and raindrops with negative charge distribution reached the surface. As a result, the vertical structure of the charge density was dipolar in the polluted case. As the

Seguir leyendo

Wave Measurement

Waves - disturbances of water - are a constant presence in the world’s oceans. Because waves travel all across the globe, transmitting vast amounts of energy, understanding their motions and characteristics is essential. The forces generated by waves are the main factor impacting the geometry of beaches, the transport of sand and other sediments in the nearshore region, and the stresses and strains on coastal structures. When waves are large, they can also pose a significant threat to commercial shipping, recreational boaters, and the beachgoing public. Thus for ensuring sound coastal planning and public safety, wave measurement and analysis is of great importance.

The discussion below is largely based on Part II, Chapter 1 of the Coastal Engineering Manual (CEM), published

Seguir leyendo

Cinismo financiero

El Banco Santander ha aumentado anualmente la financiación a las empresas de carbón,, otorgando un total de 1.214 millones de dólares a través de préstamos y suscripciones, como las polacas PGE, Tauron y Energa.

Los bancos españoles han otorgado 1.753 millones de dólares a empresas de carbón entre los años 2017 y 2019, de acuerdo con el análisis de datos realizado por varias organizaciones europeas.

Según el Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica, la COP25 tendrá un coste total de 50 millones de euros. El Banco Santander es uno de los principales patrocinadores privados.

Según el análisis, entre 2017 y 2019 la banca otorgó, a nivel mundial, préstamos por valor de 159.000 millones de dólares a empresas que planean

Seguir leyendo

Why we urgently need to teach and learn about climate change





At a time when students across the world are skipping school to raise awareness around the climate emergency and protest to ensure concrete action for our planet and their future, UNESCO aims to make education a more central and visible part of the international response to climate change, and to ensure it is effectively applied.

Why is education so central to shape the way we address the challenges climate change poses?

Responding to climate change today encompasses two things:

  • Reducing our emissions and stabilizing the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (we call this climate change ‘mitigation’);
  • Adjusting to the actual and expected climate (which is referred to as ‘adaptation’).


Seguir leyendo

" Dorian" hurricane. NNOA