Guía de meteorología.CANADA

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collection_2017/eccc/En56-240-2013-eng.pdf

 

Table of Contents Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................................II Foreword..................................................................................................................................III SECTION I: METEOROLOGY 101...........................................................................................1 Chapter 1: Marine Meteorology Primer................................................................................1 1. Convention for Units of Measurement ..........................................................................1 2. Weather Maps................................................................................................................2 3. Forecasting .....................................................................................................................5 3.1 Marine Weather Services ......................................................................................5 3.2 Forecast Tailoring..................................................................................................7 3.3 Other Considerations ..........................................................................................10 4. Marine Safety ...............................................................................................................15 5. Marine Meteorology.....................................................................................................16 Chapter 2: Wind...................................................................................................................... 25 1. Introduction.................................................................................................................25 2. How Wind is Formed ...................................................................................................25 3. Effects of Atmospheric Stability on Wind....................................................................27 3.1 Stable Atmosphere..............................................................................................27 3.2 Unstable Atmosphere..........................................................................................28 4. Nearshore Effects on Wind ..........................................................................................29 4.1 Solar Heating .......................................................................................................29 4.2 Topography ............................................................................................................. 33 4.3 Combined Effects ................................................................................................39 Chapter 3: Sea State................................................................................................................ 45 1. Introduction.................................................................................................................45 2. The Anatomy of a Wave...............................................................................................46 2.1 How Waves Form................................................................................................46 2.2 Wave Characteristics...........................................................................................47 2.3 Understanding Wave Forecasts..........................................................................48 3. Other Influences on Waves..........................................................................................50 3.1 Water-Related Effects..........................................................................................50 3.2 Topographic Effects.............................................................................................56 3.3 Atmospheric Effects............................................................................................59 4. Special Types of Waves................................................................................................60 4.1 Breaking Waves...................................................................................................60 4.2 Crossing Waves...................................................................................................60 4.3 Tsunamis.............................................................................................................61 IV Chapter 4: Fog........................................................................................................................63 1. Introduction............................................................................................................... 63 2. Navigating in Fog ....................................................................................................... 64 3. How Fog Forms.......................................................................................................... 65 4. How Fog Dissipates.................................................................................................... 65 5. Fog and Precipitation................................................................................................. 66 6. Types of Fog ............................................................................................................... 66 5.1 Fog that Forms Over Land................................................................................. 66 5.2 Fog that Forms Over Water............................................................................... 67 5.3 Fog that Forms Over Land or Water ................................................................. 72 Chapter 5: Ice .........................................................................................................................75 1. Introduction............................................................................................................... 75 2. Types of Ice................................................................................................................. 76 2.1 Freshwater Ice................................................................................................... 76 2.2 Sea Ice................................................................................................................ 78 2.3 Icebergs.............................................................................................................. 85 3. Properties of Ice......................................................................................................... 86 3.1 Strength ............................................................................................................. 86 3.2 Thickness........................................................................................................... 86 4. Ice Forecasting ........................................................................................................... 87 4.1 Egg Codes .......................................................................................................... 87 4.2 Ice and Iceberg Charts....................................................................................... 88 Chapter 6: Other Hazardous Weather................................................................................89 1. Introduction............................................................................................................... 89 2. Hazardous Cold-Weather Phenomena ...................................................................... 90 2.1 Vessel Icing........................................................................................................ 90 2.2 Cold Outbreaks.................................................................................................. 92 2.3 Snowsqualls....................................................................................................... 94 3. Severe Storms............................................................................................................. 95 3.1 Tropical Cyclones.............................................................................................. 95 3.2 Extratropical Cyclones..................................................................................... 100 3.3 Thunderstorms................................................................................................ 100 3.4 Lightning ......................................................................................................... 109 3.5 Waterspouts .................................................................................................... 111 Glossary ................................................................................................................................113 SECTION II: REGIONAL WEATHER Environment Canada – national marine weath