Calculating the Unit Voyage Cost in Maritime Transportation: An Implementation Study


Abstract— Maritime transport includes intensive political risks, and it is classified according to factors such as speed, time, distance, cost, stability and type of cargo. Considering cargo types, maritime transport is divided into two sections which are liner shipping and tramp shipping. The cost concept in the tramp shipping – the type of shipping which mainly captures the world, especially in circumstances where competition is intense- is quite effective for ship management. The reason for the affordability of tramp shipping costs is that tramp vessels sail to the place of the cargo and the last cargo sets the next destination. Because the vessels in Tramp Shipping are sailing to the place of the cargo and the last cargo defines the next

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¿De dónde van a sacar el dinero los Estados para combatir la crisis del coronavirus?





El presidente del Gobierno, Pedro Sánchez (c) preside la reunión del Consejo de Ministros en el palacio de la Moncloa este martes donde se deciden las nuevas las medidas adoptadas contra el coronavirus. EFE/Moncloa/José María Cuadrado Jiménez/Pool

Tras el anuncio de ayudas públicas multimillonarias por parte de muchos países para combatir la crisis económica y social del coronavirus mucha gente se está haciendo la misma pregunta: ¿de dónde van a sacar el dinero? ¿Quién va a pagar todas esas ayudas? El mismo hecho de que nos hagamos estas preguntas y no otras es una prueba más del dominio que tienen los planteamientos económicos ortodoxos en nuestra cabeza, una prueba más de que pensamos como el stablishment quiere que pensemos. Me explico: ¿por qué nunca nos

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Markets this week: Central banks to the rescue

The collapse in oil prices and fiscal measures have put downward pressure on inflationary expectations
The US Federal Reserve building in Washington, DC.

Economic events

Financial markets are hoping the US Federal Reserve will join the growing queue of central banks that are pledging to rescue markets after the precipitous fall not seen since the Black Monday plunge 33 years ago. Expectations of fiscal support measures are rising in addition to the deep rate cuts by various central banks already baked in bond prices.

China’s central bank on Friday cut reserve requirement ratio (RRR) by 50-100 basis points (bps) unleashing a wall of liquidity. It will release 550 billion yuan into the banking system. This liquidity adds to the 800 billion

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Prepare for the coronavirus global recession

 The Guardian

Larry Elliott

What initially seemed localised is worldwide and economic pain will go on for longer than first thought

Sun 15 Mar 2020 11.39 GMTLast modified on Mon 16 Mar 2020 00.50 GMT





 If people do not go out to their weekly meal at their favourite local restaurant for the next two months they are not going to eat out four times a week when the fear of infection has been lifted. Photograph: Andy Rain/EPA

Travel bans. Sporting events cancelled. Mass gatherings prohibited. Stock markets in freefall. Deserted shopping malls. Get ready for the Covid-19 global recession.

Up until a month ago this seemed far-fetched. It was assumed that the coronavirus outbreak would be a localised problem for China and that any spillover

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Global economy faces a ‘US$2 trillion hit’





'Doomsday' scenario’ from the UN paints a chilling picture as WHO declares a pandemic
The Covid-19 epidemic could cost the world in GDP growth nearly US$2 trillion. Photo: Mark Wilson / Getty Images / AFP

The United Nations has warned that the global economy faces “a US$2 trillion hit” in a “doomsday scenario” after the World Health Organization declared a worldwide pandemic.

As the Covid-19 disease spreads across the planet and the battle switches from China to Europe and the United States, concerns are growing that global growth will be wiped out as consumer demand evaporates.

“From an economic perspective, the key issue is not just the number of cases of Covid-19, but the level of disruption to economies from containment measures,” Ben

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